Qualifying Information - In displays, qualifying information may be enclosed in parentheses.
ISBN Structure - ISBN is an agency-assigned data element. ISBNs are assigned to monographic publications by designated agencies in each country participating in the program. An ISBN consists of ten or thirteen digits. The 10-digit ISBN comprises four groups separated by hyphens. (The tenth digit is a check digit used as a computer validity check; it consists of a number between 0 and 9 or an uppercase X (for the arabic numeral 10). The 13-digit ISBN comprises of five elements. Element one consists of a 3-digit EAN prefix that identifies the book industry. Element two identifies the country or language agency. Element three identifies the publisher prefix. Element four identifies the title or specific edition of a publication. Element five contains a check digit.
Procedures for validation of the ISBN by calculating the check digit and hyphenating instructions are in Information and Documentation - International Standard Book Numbering (ISBN) (ISO 2108).
Classes of ISBNs - ISBNs may be valid for the item being cataloged, or canceled, structurally invalid, or application invalid. The following conventions may be followed to select the appropriate subfield for an ISBN.
Valid ISBN: - Valid ISBN is one in which the length, structure, and check digit are correct, and the ISBN is applicable to the item being cataloged. The validity of an ISBN to a particular bibliographic item is usually related to the treatment given it by the cataloging agency in terms of the number of records involved. If a single record represents more than one manifestation, e.g., hard back and paperback, both ISBNs are valid. If a single record represents a multipart monograph, ISBNs for the set as a whole and those for individual volumes are valid. If a single record describes the main part and supplemental parts of a bibliographic item, all ISBNs for the main and the supplemental material are valid. In cases of multiple valid ISBNs in one record, appropriate qualifiers to differentiate the ISBNs are usually included. Note that during the transition from a 10-digit ISBN to a 13-digit one (2005-2007), some bibliographic agencies include both a 13-digit number and a 10-digit one for the same item in repeated 020 fields. In such cases, parenthetical qualification is not used to differentiate between the 10-digit and 13-digit ISBNs.
Canceled ISBN: - ISBN is considered to be canceled when a publisher designates it as such.
Structurally invalid ISBN: - ISBN is considered to be structurally invalid when its length or structure is incorrect or its check digit does not agree with the formula for calculating it.
Application invalid ISBN: - ISBN is considered to be application invalid for a particular record when it appears on the bibliographic item, but it is known, through research or other means, that the same number is also assigned to a different resource.
ISBN may also be considered to be application invalid if it is not directly applicable to the bibliographic item represented by a particular record. Application invalidity is usually related to the cataloging treatment employed by a particular agency in terms of the number of records involved. For example, if there is a record for a multivolume set as well as separate records for each of the volumes in the set, the ISBN for the set is considered application invalid on the records for the volumes. Only the ISBN applicable to the entity represented by a particular record is considered valid on that record.
Punctuation - Field 020 does not end with a period.
|ISBN||[associated with the content of subfield $a]|
|ISBN (invalid)||[associated with the content of subfield $z]|
|- - -||[embedded hyphens]|
ISBN usually appears on an item with the prefix ISBN and with each of its parts separated from the other by hyphens or spaces. The initialism ISBN, the phrase ISBN (invalid), and the embedded hyphens are not carried in the MARC record. They may be system generated as display constants associated with the content of subfields $a and $z, respectively.
Content designated field:
Display example:ISBN 0-87068-693-3 (v. 1) ISBN (invalid) 0-87068-430-2
CONTENT DESIGNATOR HISTORY
Prior to 1977, field 020 was not repeatable and multiple ISBNs and related information were contained in repeatable subfields $a, $b, and $c.
Prior to 1978, binding information was separately subfield coded. In 1978, binding information became a parenthetical qualifier of the ISBN and subfield $b was made obsolete.
Prior to the definition of subfield $c in 1974, bibliographic price information was contained in field 350 (Price).
Prior to the definition of subfield $q in 2013, qualifying information was contained in subfield $a (International Standard Book Number) and subfield $z (Canceled/invalid ISBN).
Below are examples of common MLA citation formats. For the most authoritative guide to MLA format, please consult the style manual. There is a copy at the Info & Research Help Desk.
Here are some of the changes in the latest version of MLA Style:
No requirement to state whether your source was in Print or from the Web. Any time you use an online resource, however, make sure you include the web address (URL) at the end of your citation.
No requirement to list the date you accessed an online source, but if an item is undated, you need to include it.
Publisher location is no longer needed if a book is published after 1900. If you're citing a book published before 1900, you do need the location information.
Protocol (http://) is not included as part of the URL.
Use a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) instead of the URL if available.
Article (from a database) with one author:
Lastname, First M. "Title of Article."Title of Publication, vol. #, no. #, date, pages.Name of Database, URL.
Geuss, Raymond."Happiness and Politics."Arion: A Journal of Humanities
and the Classics, vol. 10, no. 1, Spring-Summer 2002, pp. 15-33. JSTOR,
Article (print) with one author:
Lastname, First M. "Title of Article." Title of Publication,vol. #, no. #, date, pages.
Fromm, Erich."What is Happiness?" Science Digest,vol. 39, March 1956, pp. 43-7.
Article (found using Google) with one author:
Lastname, First M. "Title of Article."Title of Publication or Overall
Website,vol. #, no. #, date, pages [if available], URL.
Cohen, Patricia."Author's Personal Forecast: Not Always Sunny But
Pleasantly Skeptical."New York Times, 9 Oct.
Article (from a publisher website with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)) with two authors:
Lastname, First M., and Firstname M. Surname. "Title of Article." Title of
Publication,vol. #, no. #, date, pages. Name of publishing site or database, DOI.
Lykken, David and Auke Tellegen."Happiness is a Stochastic Phenomenon."
Psychological Science,vol. 7, no. 3, May 1996: 186-189. SAGE Journals,
Article (from a database) with three authors:
Lastname, First M., Annie B. Surname, and Anon Y. Mous. "Title of Article." Title of
Publication, vol. #, no. #, date, pages. Name of publishing site or database, URL.
More than three authors? List all authors or use the format below:
Authorone, First M. et. al. "Title of Article."Title of Publication, vol. #, no. #, date, pages.
Name of publishing site or database, URL.
Book with one author, published after 1900:
Lastname, First M. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Publisher, Date.
Munro, Alice. Too Much Happiness: Stories.Yale UP, 2009.
Book with one author, published before 1900:
Lastname, First M. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Location, Publisher,Date.
Beecher, Catharine E. Letters to the People on Health and Happiness.New York, Harper and Brothers, 1855.
Books with multiple authors, published after 1900:
The author name format follows the author format as listed under articles. Follow the rest of the format for books.
An edited book, published after 1900:
Editor, First M., editor. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book.Publisher, Date.
Cahn, Steven M., and Christine Vitrano, editors. Happiness: Classic and
Contemporary Readings in Philosophy.Oxford UP, 2007.
An online book published after 1900:
Lastname, First M. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book.Publisher, Date. URL.
McMahon, Darrin M.Happiness: A History.Grove Press, 2006.
An online book published before 1900 (requires listing the publication location):
Lastname, First M. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book.Location, Publisher, Date. URL.
Wainewright, William. On the Elements of Human Happiness. London, William
Skeffington, 1857. books.google.com/books?id=51cCAAAAQAAJ.
Web Sites & Pages
Web site with one author and publication date:
Author, Firstname M. Title of Site. Publication date, URL.
Veenhoven, Ruut. World Database of Happiness. 1984-2014, worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/.
Web site with a corporate or organizational author and publication date:
Title of Site. Sponsor of Site, publication date. URL.
Well-Being Concepts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
31 May 2016. www.cdc.gov/hrqol/wellbeing.htm.
Web site with a corporate author but no publication date:
Title of Site. Sponsor of Site. URL. Accessed date.
Why Happiness. Action for Happiness. www.actionforhappiness.org/why-happiness.
Accessed 26 Aug. 2016.
Web page with a corporate author but no publication date:
"Title of page." Title of Site. Corporation Name. URL. Accessed date.
"Happiness" Employee Health & Fitness Program. City of Eugene, City
Manager's Office. www.eugene-or.gov/2535/Happiness. Accessed 6 Jan. 2017.
Image from an online source with a creator listed:
Creator, First M.Title of Image or Description of Image. Date created, URL.
Gelman, Andrew.Average Happiness as a Function of Age, from General
Social Survey. 26 Dec. 2010, andrewgelman.com/2010/12/26/age_and_happine/.
Image from an online source with a title, but no creator listed:
Title of Image or Description of Image. Date created, URL.
Smiling Woman at Desk. 13 Aug. 2013, www.bbc.com/news/business-23640900.
Image from a print source with a creator listed:
Creator, First M.Title of image or Description of Image. Date created, [Continue the remainder of the citation
with title of book or article as appropriate].