Journal of Kidney is a peer reviewed-open access journal. Its main aim is the development of scientific community internationally by publishing world class articles related to kidney’s functions, disorders, diagnosis and treatment. It welcomes research articles, review articles, commentary articles, short communications, case reports, clinical image articles, conference proceedings etc. The journal gives full freedom to the authors to put their views and ideas through their manuscripts. The articles accepted in Journal of Kidney support journal’s goals to associate clinical physicians with the researchers. These articles highlight new discoveries and research that are majorly going in the field of Clinical Nephrology.
Journal of Kidney welcomes manuscripts related to surgeries, procedures, treatment methods, Glomerular Diseases, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Haemodialysis, Kidney Abnormalities, Renal failure, Kidney Transplantation, Kidney Cancer, Diabetic Kidney Disease, Hemorrhagic cystitis, Acute Tubular Necrosis, Analgesic Nephropathy, Angiotensin, Chronic kidney Disease, Cryoglobulinemia, Cytoscopy, IgA Nephropathy, Acupuncture Kidney Points, Microscopic Polyangiitis, Osmotic diuresis, Nephroptosis, Polycystic Kidney Disease, Pyelonephritis, Radiation Nephropathy, Renal Failure, Urinary Tract Infections. The journal operates Editorial Manager System for online manuscript submission, review and tracking. Editorial Board Members of Journal of Kidney or outside experts perform the review; at least two independent reviewer’s approval followed by the editor is required for the acceptance of any citable manuscript.
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Glomerular Disease is the retention of toxins and excretion of red blood cells and proteins out of bloodstream. Glomerular diseases are classified into glomerulonephritis and glomerulosclerosis. Diagnosed by urine, blood, imaging tests and kidney biopsy.
Related Journals of Glomerular Disease
Renal Medicine Journals, Journal of Kidney, Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics, Japanese Journal of Nephrology, International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease, Journal of Renal Care, CardioRenal Medicine.
Kidney Abnormalities can be tested by various blood tests, kidney biopsy, imaging tests and urine tests. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and glomerular filtration rate are under blood tests. Urine tests include urinalysis, urine protein, creatinine clearance and micro albuminuria. Ultrasound and CT scan are imaging tests.
Related Journals of Kidney Abnormalities
American Journal of kidney Diseases, Journal of Kidney, Kidney and Blood Pressure Research, Kidney International, Kidney Research and Clinical Practice, Kidney International Supplements.
Kidney Cancer is the disease in which tumours start in kidney cells and become malignant growing out of control appears in the tubules of kidney. Two types of renal cancer are renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of renal pelvis.
Related Journals of Kidney Cancer
American Journal of kidney Diseases, Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy, Journal of Cancer Diagnosis, European Journal of Cancer Care, Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Journal of Renal Care, CardioRenal Medicine.
Acupuncture Kidney Points
Acupuncture points of kidney are the locations on the body that are focused to acupuncture, acupressure, laser acupuncture and sonopuncture treatments of kidney located along the meridian. Some of them are gushing spring, blazing valley, stone pass, hidden gate etc.
Related Journals of Acupuncture Kidney Points
Journal articles on Nephrology, Journal of Novel Physiotherapies, Journal of Kidney, JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Journal of Acupuncture and Tuina Science, Acupuncture in Medicine, Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine.
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Polycystic Kidney Disease is inherited kidney disorder causing formation of full-filled cysts in the kidney. Cysts occurs in various sizes and are round sacs contain water-like fluid and are noncancerous. Two types of PKD are autosomal dominant and recessive types.
Related Journals of Polycystic Kidney Disease
American Journal of kidney Diseases, Journal of Kidney, Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Nephrology.
Kidney Transplantation is the process of placing a healthy kidney which takes over the work of cleaning blood through an operation or a surgery in patients with end stage renal disease. It is classified as living donor transplantation or deceased donor transplantation on the source of organ of the donor.
Related Journals of Kidney Transplantation
Transplantation Journals, Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research, Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia., Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine, Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation.
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Glomerular Filtration Rate, the measure of kidney function is the test to describe the flow rate of filtered fluid (how much blood passes) from glomerular capillaries into bowman’s capsule of the kidney. Glomeruli of kidney purifies blood. GFR is calculated by creatinine filtration rate.
Related Journals of Glomerular Filtration Rate
Journal articles on Nephrology, Journal of Kidney, Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics, Nephron- Clinical Practice, Nephro-Urology Monthly, Nephrologe, Nephrologie et Therapeutique.
Uremia, produced by the toxic effects of abnormally high concentrations of nitrogenous substances in the blood as a result of the kidney’s failure to expel waste products by way of the urine. Uremia can result from any disorder that impairs the functioning of the kidneys or that hinders the excretion of urine from the body.The end products of protein metabolism accumulate in the blood but are normally filtered out when the blood passes through the kidneys.
Related Journals of Uremia
Dialysis Journals, Kidney and Blood Pressure Research, Kidney International, Kidney Research and Clinical Practice, Kidney International Supplements.
Renal Failure is the condition of kidney unable to filter wastes from the blood. Acute and chronic renal failure are the two forms of kidney failure. It may leads to abnormal heart rhythms, weakness, confusion, shortness of breath, lethargy or even sudden death.
Related Journals of Radiation Failure
Renal Medicine Journals, Renal Failure, Journal of Renal Care, Renal Society of Australasia Journal, CardioRenal Medicine.
Angiotensin a peptide hormone causes constriction of blood vessels is a part of renin angiotensin system. It stimulates the release of aldosterone which promotes sodium retention in distal nephron of kidney. Types of angiotensin are angiotensin I, II, III and IV.
Related Journals of Angiotensin
Renal Medicine Journals, Renal Failure, Journal of Renal Care, Renal Society of Australasia Journal, American Journal of Kidney Diseases.
Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney or renal disease is a gradual damage or loss of kidney function over time. In chronic kidney disease excess fluids, electrolytes remains in blood and wastes build up in the body. Symptoms include being unwell and reduced appetite.
Related Journals of Chronic Kidney Disease
American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Chronic diseases and injuries in Canada, Preventing chronic disease.
IgA Nephropathy or berger’s disease is the disease that damages the glomeruli due to abnormal deposition of IgA protein antibodies in them, is the most common form of glomerulonephritis.It causes local inflammation decreasing kidney’s ability to filter excess water, wastes and electrolytes from blood.
Related Journals of IgA Nephropathy
Diabetic Nephropathy, Pediatric Nephrology, Journal of Innate Immunity, Journal of Immunology, Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry, International Journal of Nephrology.
Microscopic Polyangiitis is an uncommon disease characterised by inflammation of small and medium sized blood vessels of the kidneys leading to functional damage of the kidneys. Common symptoms include inflammation of kidney, weight loss, skin lesions, nerve damage and fevers.
Related Journals of Microscopic Polyangiitis
Journal articles on Nephrology, Journal of Microscopy, Nephrology, Nephrologie et Therapeutique, Nephrologe.
Analgesic Nephropathy is the kidney injury caused by over exposure to analgesic medications over a long period of time which are excreted only through kidneys. Various analgesics are aspirin, paracetamol, phenacitin and phenacitin combinations.
Related Journals of Analgesic Nephropathy
Pain Medicine, Pain Management Nursing, Journal of Pain Research, Kidney International.
Fanconi Syndrome is the dysfunction of kidney proximal renal tubules (caused by drugs or heavy metals) in which amino acids, glucose, bicarboantes, uric acid and phosphates are passed into the urine instead of reabsorbing. Common causes are galactose, glycogen, fructose and cysteine.
Related Journals of Fanconi Syndrome
American Journal of kidney Diseases, Dialysis Journals, Japanese Journal of Nephrology, International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease, Journal of Renal Care, CardioRenal Medicine.
Osmotic Diuresis is the increased urination due to certain non absorbable substances causing retention of water within the lumen in kidney tubules. It is caused by high blood glucose, urea and medications such as mannitol, excretion occurs with the entry of these substances.
Related Journals of Osmotic Diuresis
Renal Medicine Journals, Transplantation Journals, Medical & Surgical Urology, Japanese Journal of Nephrology, International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease, Journal of Renal Care, CardioRenal Medicine.
Hemorrhagic Cystitis is the lower urinary tract symptom with sudden onset of hematuria with dysuria ,haemorrhage and bladder pain due to damage to transitional epithelium of bladder and blood vessels by radiation, drugs, pathogens, toxins or disease.
Related Journals of Hemorrhagic Cystitis
American Journal of kidney Diseases, Journal of Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases, Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease, Journal of Renal Care, Blood Reviews.
Acute Tubular Necrosis
Acute Tubular Necrosis is common kidney injury involving injury and dysfunction of tubular cell that forms renal tubules of the kidney. It results in decreased renal function and elevation of plasma blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine.
Related Journals of Acute Tubular Necrosis
Brain Injury, Brain: a journal of neurology, Nature Reviews Nephrology, Nephron- Clinical Practice.
Cryoglobulinemia or cold antibody in the blood is a medical condition caused b proteins named cryoglobulins present in the blood, which are not soluble at low temperatures. It can be associated with hepatitis C and multiple myeloma or lymphoma.
Related Journals of Cryoglobulinemia
American Journal of kidney Diseases,Journal of Hepatitis, Revisiones en Cancer, Cancer and Chemotherapy Reviews, Cancer Control, Clinical Nephrology.
Cystoscopy is procedure of inserting a cystoscope into urethra – the tube that carries urine from bladder to outside the body. Cystoscope uses optical fibres and consists of lenses like telescope or microscope. Cystoscopy reveals tumours, stones or cancer.
Related Journals of Cystoscopy
Pyelonephritis, Journal of Dual Diagnosis, Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, Imagen Diagnostica, Renal Society of Australasia Journal.
Radiation Nephropathy is the injury to the kidney or renal failure by subjecting to ionizing radiation. It causes progressive lessening in renal hemodynamics with severe anemia. The diagnostic dose of radiation at each time is 5 ~ logY.
Related Journals of Radiation Nephropathy
Journal articles on Nephrology, Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy, Iranian Journal of Radiation Research, International Journal of Radiation Biology, Radiography, Radiologia Medica.
Diabetic Kidney Disease
Diabetic Kidney Disease or diabetic nephropathy is the damage of blood vessels in the kidney resulting improper cleaning of blood. High levels of blood sugar makes kidneys work more can damage the system. Retention of salt and water causes weight gain and ankle swelling.
Related Journals of Diabetic Kidney Disease
Diabetic Nephropathy, Journal of Diabetic Complications & Medicine, Diabetes Care, Diabetes Primary Care, Diabetologe, Kidney and Blood Pressure Research.
Nephrocalcinosis is a condition in which calcium levels in the kidneys are increased. Most often, the increase in renal calcium is generalized, as opposed to the localized increase observed in calcified renal infarct and caseating granulomas of renal tuberculosis. Determined by the underlying etiology, though in many cases, the condition remains asymptomatic and is identified only as a radiologic abnormality.
Related Journals of Nephrocalcinosis
Nephrosclerosis, Journal articles on Nephrology, Kidney and Blood Pressure Research, Kidney International, Kidney Research and Clinical Practice, Kidney International Supplements.
Pyelonephritis is sudden, serious and potential infection of kidney which can cause causing severe illness by spreading to blood is a type of urinary tract infection . It causes inflammation of kidney parts such as calyces, tissues and pelvis. It can be treated with antibiotics.
Related Journals of Pyelonephritis
Pediatric Nephrology, Nephron - Clinical Practice, Nephro-Urology Monthly, Open Urology and Nephrology Journal, American Journal of Nephrology.
Nephroptosis or floating kidney or renal ptosis or prolapsed kidney or wandering kidney is the condition where kidney drops down from normal position into the pelvis when a person stands upright or lies flat. It occurs more in women. Kidney descends more than 5cm or 2 vertebral bodies.
Related Journals of Nephroptosis
American Journal of kidney Diseases, Nephron - Clinical Practice, Nephro-Urology Monthly, Nephrologe, Nephrologie et Therapeutique.
It can have a targeted, powerful effect on tumors that are confined to a specific area.
Radiation can form part of curative or palliative treatments against tumors. This MNT Knowledge Center article provides easy-to-follow information about radiation therapy.
Although radiation therapy is also sometimes used for nonmalignant disease, including benign tumors and inflammatory conditions, this page focuses on its main medical application in treating cancer.
- Radiation therapy involves delivering powerful waves of energy to disrupt the ability of cancer cells to grow and divide, killing cancer cells, slowing their growth, and shrinking tumors to enable surgery.
- The side effects of radiation therapy occur because healthy tissue near the tumor is affected as well as the cancerous tissue. Most side effects are localized to the area treated and usually short-term, although some effects, such as fatigue, can occur body-wide.
- To ensure accurate placement of radiation therapy, the treatment is often simulated during planning before the real treatment is administered.
What is radiation therapy?
External beam radiation therapy is typically administered using a linear accelerator.
Radiation therapy uses waves of radiation to treat cancers and tumors, as well as other conditions.
As a general term, radiation means waves of energy, such as light or heat.
The form of radiation used in cancer therapy is a high-energy type known as ionizing radiation.
Exactly how radiation works as a treatment for cancer is complex and still being researched, but on a simple level it breaks up the DNA of cancer cells in a way that disrupts their growth and division and can even kill them.
Radiation therapy will sometimes be used on its own, and in some cases will be used alongside other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, if a cancer specialist decides that this will enhance the effect of the treatment.
Approximately 60 percent of people being treated for cancer in the United States will receive radiation treatment.
The side effects of radiation therapy occur when non-cancerous cells are also affected by the treatment.
Radiation therapy reacts in the same way with cancer cells and non-cancerous cells. However, cancer cells are more vulnerable to the effects of treatment, due to cancer cells tendency to copy themselves at a faster rate and repair more slowly.
Some non-cancerous cells are also affected by radiation therapy, however, leading to potentially severe side effects.
Side effects vary based on the part of the body being treated, the overall health of the person receiving radiation therapy, and the type and dose of radiation used.
Short-term side effects
Short-term effects of radiation treatment can include the following:
- fatigue or lethargy
- skin irritation, including swelling, blisters, and a sunburned or tanned appearance
- effects specific to the area of treatment, such as hair loss, urinary problems, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
- tissue inflammation, such as esophagitis, pneumonitis, and hepatitis
- rarely, a drop in the number of white blood cells or platelets
Long-term side effects
Long-term effects also depend on the site of treatment and can include:
- Stiffening and restricted movement: After neck therapy, for example, the jaw can stiffen. This can occur as a result of tissue scarring. Exercises may be advised after cancer surgery and radiation therapy to help loosen movement.
- Skin effects: These include delayed wound healing and a spidery red or purple appearance caused by dilated capillary blood vessels.
- Diarrhea and bleeding: These can occur as a result of bowel damage when the abdomen receives radiation therapy.
- Hormone problems: These can include hypopituitarism or hypothyroidism, dry mouth, memory loss, and infertility.
- A second cancer caused by radiation exposure: Although rare, soft-tissue sarcoma, for example, can be caused by high doses of radiation. The risk of recurrence of the cancer being treated is higher than the risk of a new cancer being caused by radiation therapy.
Not all of the above examples are likely or even possible with all types of radiation therapy. The likelihood of getting any one of the longer-term side effects depends largely on the individual.
People opting for radiation therapy should, therefore, receive guidance from their healthcare team about the balance of risks and benefits.
Radiation therapy and chemotherapy
Radiation used in medicine is dangerous only when precautions are not taken - if health workers do not shield themselves from repeated exposure, for example.
Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are different cancer treatments. They might be used together, or a doctor may select one or the other depending on the required treatment.
Chemotherapy involves the infusion of cancer-killing substances into the blood using a drip or prescribed medications. Radiation therapy, on the other hand, targets a specific area or tumor.
Before radiation therapy, chemotherapy can help to reduce the size of a tumor, making the targeted radiation therapy treatment more effective.
When it is applied after radiation therapy, it can help to prevent the return of tumors that have been removed. Chemotherapy achieves this by killing cancer cells that have split from the original tumor.
When an oncologist, or cancer specialist, prescribes both radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the same time, it is known as chemoradiation. This can increase the impact of radiation therapy on cancer. However, the side effects can be severe when receiving chemoradiation.
Unlike chemotherapy, radiation is not effective against cancers that have spread to other parts of the body. However, it is more powerful and can have a greater effect when shrinking tumors.
There are two forms of radiation therapy:
- external beam radiation therapy, in which the beam of radiation is focused onto the treatment area by an external machine
- internal radiation therapy, such as brachytherapy, in which a radioactive substance is placed in or close to the cancerous tissue in a temporary or permanent implant
Different forms of external beam radiation therapy have specific effects that best suit the particular tumor. High-energy X-rays, for example, can reach deeper cancers. Advances are continually being achieved in the way that external beams "narrow in" on their target for best effect and the lowest level of risk.
External beam radiation therapy is the more commonly used form of radiation therapy. Internal radiation therapy may be used when trying to limit radiation exposure to undamaged tissue around the cancer.
Ahead of treatment, an oncologist will decide on the dose and type of radiation. It will normally take place over the course of several sessions that are spread over a few weeks. Many people have five treatments per week. However, this can change depending on the stage and type of cancer.
A person will also undergo a CT scan before treatment to pinpoint the exact location and size of the cancer. A permanent but small ink mark will be made on the skin following the scan to ensure that the radiation is targeted accurately.
The different types of radiation therapy are administered in different ways.
In external radiation therapy, a machine called a linear accelerator is used to emit X-rays within a specific energy range. Other machines are also available that use other forms of energy, including electrons, protons, gamma rays, or a combination of these.
The person receiving treatment lies on a table, and a technician based outside of the room operates the machine remotely. An intercom will be installed so that the patient and technician can communicate.
The technician will monitor the individual receiving radiation therapy through a camera.
The procedure is usually very short and painless, and a person can return home shortly after the end of the session.
There are variations on the procedure, such as image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) in which scans are performed between sessions to maintain accuracy in the treatment, or stereotactic surgery (SRS), which uses several tiny beams to enhance the strength of the dose.
Internal radiation therapy involves an implant of metal tubes, wires, or seeds that can be placed inside the body without surgery. In some cases, surgery may be needed to locate the implant nearer to the cancer.
The implant will remain in the body for any length of time, ranging from a few minutes to the rest of a person's life. It is likely that the person with implants will need to remain in hospital, as the implants pose a radiation risk to other people. Permanent implants release far smaller doses of radiation and are considered safe for people around the individual receiving treatment.
Radiation therapy will be recommended by a doctor to target well-defined and contained cancers.
Well-defined cancers that are confined to a specific area can be suitable for radiation therapy. This allows the radiation to target the whole area of cancerous tissue.
In contrast, some forms of cancer, such as leukemia or lymphoma, can be treated with total body irradiation.
For cancer, radiation therapy may be deployed in the following ways:
- Alone: Radiation therapy may be used on its own to treat prostate cancer or a tumor of the larynx.
- Alongside surgical treatment: Radiation therapy may be carried out before or during cancer surgery to shrink the tumor, or after surgery to reduce the risk that all cancer cells have not been removed.
- With chemotherapy: This is a combination treatment that can reduce the need for surgery.
Sarcomas or tumors of the breast, esophagus, lung, or rectum may be treated with all three uses.
Palliative radiation therapy
In addition to the main role of radiation therapy in helping to stop or cure a cancer, it can also be used to treat symptoms in cancers that have spread too widely or advanced so far that they cannot be fully cured.
This is known as palliative radiation therapy, which can help to reduce tumor size and the pain caused by tumors.
Quality of life may also be improved by radiation therapy for someone who has developed, for example, a bone cancer secondary to another form of cancer that has spread from its original site, such as bowel, breast, or prostate cancer.
While the cancer will not be cured by the radiation treatment, it can help to stop the formation of further painful bone cancers and reduce pain by strengthening weakened bone.
Radiation therapy is not always suitable for palliative use, and when it is used, it is often accompanied by other forms of cancer treatment and palliative care.
Other examples of palliative radiation therapy include the following:
- relieving pressure or blockage by reducing tumor size
- treating symptoms of brain cancer, such as headaches, nausea, and dizziness
- reducing symptoms of lung cancer, such as chest pain and breathlessness
- controlling ulcerating tumors, bleeding, and infections
- shrinking a specific obstruction caused by a tumor, known as a superior vena cava obstruction (SVCO), in which head and neck tumors cause a blockage, affecting the return of blood to the heart
Doses are measured in terms of the amount of energy absorbed per kilogram of body mass exposed to radiation. For example, 1 joule of energy deposited in 1 kilogram of mass amounts to 1 international unit of energy absorbed, or 1 gray (Gy).
Doctors giving radiation therapy keep a record of the amount of radiation being administered.
Both individual and cumulative doses affect the risk of long-term side effects, and different cancers and areas of the body respond in different ways.
Health professionals delivering radiation or working in the vicinity of treatment are required to take protective steps to keep their own exposure to a minimum and measure how much they receive.
As with any medical treatment, a person will decide to go ahead with the care team's recommendation for radiation therapy after determining that the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks.
Radiation treatment planning is designed to maximize benefits and keep potential risks to a minimum. This involves working out an exact site, an angle of radiation, and an optimal dose.
Radiation planning can be a detailed process involving a number of healthcare workers, including oncologists and specialist radiologists, nurses, radiographers, and other technicians.
Just as side effects depend on the individual's circumstances, so too do the type of radiation therapy and the planning required.
The planning will:
- consider the type, position and size of the cancer, and whether the tumor is close to radiation-sensitive tissues or organs
- take into account the required depth needed to reach the target, and consider the person's general health and medical history
- usually involve a CT scan but sometimes use less sophisticated X-ray, MRI, or PET scans
- occasionally involve the use of contrast mediums or other markers that help to define tumors, inks, tattoos, molds, or masks that help to pinpoint the radiation target
Modern radiation planning is usually computer-assisted and sophisticated enough to produce 3D images of tumors.