In Class Essay Structure

You’ve got two hours to write an essay, in class. You’ve studied for all possible prompts but you know the professor will only choose one for you to answer. What if you focused too heavily on a question that won’t be used during the exam? Don’t worry, here’s how to tackle the in-class essay.

 

Move quick

Aside from being in-class, the time limit puts an unusual amount of pressure on the essay-writing process. Students usually get an hour to two hours, depending on the class, to complete their essays.With that being said, it’s important to move fast and not dwell on a key point you’re having trouble explaining. You don’t have a quote or an example of a point you’re trying to make? Then forget it, move on to another statement. Don’t waste precious time skimming through your book either, it’s important to stick to what you know.

 

So what do you know?

Some students like to gamble on in-class essays and study one or two topics heavily while leaving the other potential prompts unchecked. There are obvious downsides to this method while also some upsides. For one, if the professor chooses the question you studied most for, then you’ve got it in the bag, but the risk is you’ll have a half-baked essay if the prompt is one you weren’t prepared for.

 

Outline and Quote

You have to go in with a plan of attack. Do not go into an in-class essay without some form of structure, you need to have some sort of blueprint in your head or on paper, of what your essay will be. Think about which key points you want to introduce first and so on. Think about how you’ll be opening and closing the essay.

If you are able to use a textbook during the exam…

With every statement or key point, you should think about inserting a quote from the text to further emphasize your point. This not only makes your paragraph feel authoritative but it also takes up precious space. For each key point, you should provide at least two to three examples with one of those examples as a direct quote. Protip: mark up your book before class or leave sticky notes on the pages as quick ways to navigate the text. Be careful, depending on your professor, you may or may not be allowed to used a marked up book.

And don’t forget about properly citing your quotes with page numbers!

If you can’t have a textbook…

When you’re studying, pick one or two quotes and memorize them if you can, if not, you can always paraphrase the quote in your essay.

 

For more tips, tricks and help on your final exams, be sure to check out these tips from real professors. And for much more on your impending stress-induced panic-attack, keep it locked on the Chegg blog.

 

Essay exams test you on “the big picture”- relationships between major concepts and themes in the course. Here are some suggestions on how to prepare for and write these exams.

Exam preparation

Learn the material with the exam format in mind

  • Find out as much information as possible about the exam – e.g., whether there will be choice – and guide your studying accordingly.
  • Review the material frequently to maintain a good grasp of the content.
    • Think, and make notes or concept maps, about relationships between themes, ideas and patterns that recur through the course. See the guide Listening & Note-taking and Learning & Studying for information on concept mapping.
    • Practice your critical and analytical skills as you review.
      • Compare/contrast and think about what you agree and disagree with, and why.

Focus your studying by finding and anticipating questions

  • Find sample questions in the textbook or on previous exams, study guides, or online sources.
  • Anticipate questions by:
    • Looking  for patterns of questions in any tests you  have already written in the course;
    • Looking at the course outline for major themes;
    • Checking your notes for what the professor has emphasized in class;
    • Asking yourself what kind of questions you would ask if you were the professor;
    • Brainstorming questions with a study group.
  • Formulate outline or concept map answers to your sample questions.
    • Organize supporting evidence logically around a central argument.
    • Memorize your outlines or key points.
  • A couple of days before the exam, practice writing answers to questions under timed conditions.

If the Professor distributes questions in advance

  • Make sure you have thought through each question and have at least an outline answer for each.
  • Unless the professor has instructed you to work alone, divide the questions among a few people, with each responsible for a full answer to one or more questions. Review, think about, and supplement answers composed by other people.

Right before the exam

  • Free write about the course for about 5 minutes as a warm-up.

Exam writing

Read carefully

  • Look for instructions as to whether there is choice on the exam.
  • Circle key words in questions (e.g.: discuss, compare/contrast, analyze, evaluate, main evidence for, 2 examples) for information on the meaning of certain question words.
  • See information on learning and studying techniques on the SLC page for Exam Preparation.

Manage your time

  • At the beginning of the exam, divide the time you have by the number of marks on the test to figure out how much time you should spend for each mark and each question. Leave time for review.
  • If the exam is mixed format, do the multiple choice, true/ false or matching section first. These types of questions contain information that may help you answer the essay part.
  • If you can choose which questions to answer, choose quickly and don’t change your mind.
  • Start by answering the easiest question, progressing to the most difficult at the end.
  • Generally write in sentences and paragraphs but switch to point form if you are running out of time.

Things to include and/or exclude in your answers

  • Include general statements supported by specific details and examples.
  • Discuss relationships between facts and concepts, rather than just listing facts.
  • Include one item of information (concept, detail, or example) for every mark the essay is worth.
  • Limit personal feelings/ anecdotes/ speculation unless specifically asked for these.

Follow a writing process

  • Plan the essay first
    • Use the first 1/10 to 1/5 of time for a question to make an outline or concept map.
    • Organize the plan around a central thesis statement.
    • Order your subtopics as logically as possible, making for easier transitions in the essay.
    • To avoid going off topic, stick to the outline as you write.
    • Hand in the outline. Some professors or TAs may give marks for material written on it.
  • Write the essay quickly, using clear, concise sentences.
  • Maintain a clear essay structure to make it easier for the professor or TA to mark:
    • A 1-2 sentence introduction, including a clear thesis statement and a preview of the points.
      • Include key words from the question in your thesis statement.
    • Body paragraph each containing one main idea, with a topic sentence linking back to the thesis statement, and transition words (e.g.:  although, however) between paragraphs.
    • A short summary as a conclusion, if you have time.
    • If it is easier, leave a space for the introduction and write the body first.
  • Address issues of spelling, grammar, mechanics, and wording only after drafting the essay.
    • As you write, leave space for corrections/additional points by double-spacing.
  • Review the essay to make sure its content matches your thesis statement.  If not, change the thesis.

For For more information on exam preparation and writing strategies, see our “Exams” pages.

Some suggestions in this handout were adapted from “Fastfacts – Short-Answer and Essay Exams” on the University of Guelph Library web site; “Resources – Exam Strategies” on the St. Francis Xavier University Writing Centre web site; and “Writing Tips – In-Class Essay Exams” and “Writing Tips – Standardized Test Essay Exams” on the Center for Writing Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign web site

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