1) What is water pollution?
2) What causes water pollution?
3) Name the 2 sources of pollution
4) What are the different types of water pollution?
5) How can water pollution be prevented?
6) Pollution can be: MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL, SUSPENDED MATTER, NUTRIENTS, OXYGEN-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES.
Give one real example for each cse with a brief explanation.
1) 1- Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, very often by human activities.
2- Water pollution is caused by:
• Industrial waste
•Sewage and waste water
•Accidental oil leakage
•Burning of fossil fuels
•Leakage from sewer lines
•Chemical fertilizers and pesticides
•Leakage from thr landfills
•Underground storage leakage
3) Point-source pollutants in surface water and groundwater are usually found in a plume that has the highest concentrations of the pollutant nearest the source (such as the end of a pipe or an underground injection system) and diminishing concentrations farther away from the source. The various types of point-source pollutants found in waters are as varied as the types of business, industry, agricultural, and urban sources that produce them. If the facility or operator does not handle, store and disposed of the raw materials and wastes properly, these pollutants could end up in the water supply. This may occur through discharges at the end of a pipe to surface water, discharges on the ground that move through the ground with infiltrating rainwater, or direct discharges beneath the ground surface. Nonpoint-source pollution occurs as water moves across the land or through the ground and picks up natural and human-made pollutants, which can then be deposited in lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters, and even groundwater. The water that carries nonpoint-source pollution may originate from natural processes such as rainfall or snowmelt, or from human activities such as crop irrigation or lawn maintenance.
Nonpoint-source pollution is usually found spread out throughout a large area. It is often difficult to trace the exact origin of these pollutants because they result from a wide variety of human activities on the land as well as natural characteristics of the soil, climate, and topography. The most common nonpoint-source pollutants are sediment, nutrients, microorganisms and toxics. Sediment can degrade water quality by contaminating drinking water supplies or silting in spawning grounds for fish and other aquatic species. Nutrients, microorganisms, and other toxic substances can dangerous to human health and aquatic life.
This silt-laden runoff from a residential area contains not only soil and clay particles from nearby construction, but also is likely to contain small amounts of lawn chemicals, oil, grease, gasoline, and even residues from recent highway de-icing. These are all examples of pollutants released from nonpoint sources.
4) There are different types of water pollution:
Chemicals:Industrial and agricultural work involves the use of many different chemicals that can run-off into water and pollute it.These are poisonous to aquaticlife and could also affects humans and birds because as we eat fish, if they are infected, in some way affects our health and our body. Some examples of these chemicals could be metals, solvents and petrol from industrial activities and pesticides from agriculture.
Microbiological:This is a natural form of water pollution caused by microorganisms such as bacterias, viruses and protozoas. The consequences are diseas that could affect fishes, humans and land animals.
Suspended Matter: These is causes because of suspended particles of pollutants that couldn t disolved on water on water. These could harm aquatic life that live in the floor of laked and rivers.
Nutrients: some wastewater and fertilizers contain high levels of nutrients that encourages the growth of different water plants like algaes. These is a problem beacause if there s so many plants they might use ol the oxygen available and not letting suffiient for fishes.
Ground water pollution:These kind of pollution is often caused beacuse of the pesticides of the soil and could provoque huge problems to humans as some use it as a source of drinking water.
Oxygen-depleting: This is origined because of the excess of biodegradable material in water. As fishes feed on biodegradable material when there is too much of it, the number of microorganisms increase and they use all the oxygen available developing like this which is called oxygen depletion. When oxygen levels in the water are depleted, relatively harmless aerobic microorganisms die and anaerobic microorganisms begin to thrive. Some anaero bic microorganisms are harmful to people, animals and the environment, as they produce harmful toxins.
Surfaces water pollution: Surfaces waters are the natural water resources of Earth such as rivers, oceans, lagoons and seas.These waters can become polluted in a number of ways giving like this place to the surfaces water pollution.
5) what can do to help. You can prevent water pollution of nearby rivers and lakes as well as groundwater and drinking water by following some simple guidelines in your everyday life.
•Conserve water by turning off the tap when running water is not necessary. This helps prevent water shortages and reduces the amount of contaminated water that needs treatment.
•Be careful about what you throw down your sink or toilet. Don’t throw paints, oils or other forms of litter down the drain.
•Try to use environmentally household products, such as washing powder, household cleaning agents and toiletries.
•Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilisers. This will prevent runoffs of the material into nearby water sources.
•By having more plants in your garden you are preventing fertiliser, pesticides and contaminated water from running off into nearby water sources.
•Don’t throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans. Help clean up any litter you see on beaches or in rivers and lakes, make sure it is safe to collect the litter and put it in a nearby dustbin.
Microbiological pollution it the pollution that cause by microorganisms. Most of them are not dangerous but they still make the water not clean. But there are some of the organism like bacteria, viruses can lead to a serious diseases that can lead to death. So that’s why some of the countries don’t have clean water to drink and lead to sickness. Real Life The faecal microbiological pollution was investigated in the Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels (zones of the St. Marys River in Sault Ste. Marie, the St. Clair River in Samia and the Detroit River in Windsor (Ontario)) Water samples from these rivers and various sources of faecal pollution were analyzed for the indicator organism recommended by Health and Welfare Canada – Escherichia coli. Local improvements can be achieved by manipulating bacteria transport in rivers – preventing influx of contaminated waters to the areas used for water-based recreation.
Many Industrial work has to use many chemicals that can leak and get into water and pollute the water. Metals from industrial pollute the rivers and lakes. And because of that the animals that live in the water are become endangered. Petroleum is a different type of chemical by oil spills. Oil spills have a localized effect on wildlife, but can spread out for many miles. This oil can cause the death of many fish. Real Life The Yangtze River leaks most of the concern in China In January, water supplies in the southern region of Guangxi became contaminated with cadmium from a mining company. People were warned not to drink water from rivers in affected areas. There was panic buying of bottled water in some areas in Jiangsu after residents noticed a foul smell coming from the tap water Shanghai’s drinking water supply mainly comes from the Yangtze River.
An environment official has said that the city was ready to shut down water supplies from the Yangtze should the need arise. (I want also want to add that I have read a book called “La Apelacion” of John Grishman that talked the same of the chemical pollution. When a company from the south of Mississippi that destarched toxic waste in the water system of the city, prompting the impact of hundreds of cases of cancer. This is one of millions of consequence from the chemical pollution )
This pollution are caused because of when the pollutants get into the water and it didn’t mix with the water molecules. And all of these particles will form fine silt on the bottom of the water. Then, it will harm the animals that live in the water by taking all the nutrients and effect their habitat. Real Life Raritan and Lower New York Bays using dissolved and particulate elemental concentrations The concentrations of 22 elements also were measured in the suspended matter of Raritan and Lower New York Bays and brackish water sources. Statistical differences among the geographical regions were detected in the relationships of Ti, Ni, Co, As, and U with Fe, with particulate As being an especially strong geochemical indicator of Raritan River particles.
Nutrients are the things that plants need for growing and developing.Also, most of them are found in a waste water. These can cause excess weed and algae growth if there are large concentrations in water. Drinking water can be contaminated. The algae use up all the oxygen in the water and leave nothing to the surrounding marine life and this can damage other organisms that live in the water. Real Life Nutrients pollution in Mexico
One prominent example of the process is the so-called dead zone that occurs annually in the Gulf of Mexico. The dead zone is caused by nitrogen carried to the Gulf from the Mississippi River. The Mississippi drains much of the land in the Midwestern United States, an area known for its farming operations and agriculture. In the Gulf of Mexico, the extra nitrogen causes blooms of algae, which die and deplete the oxygen in the water. Fish and shellfish that can’t escape the zone are killed.
Oxygen depletion in a pond is the result of demand exceeding supply. Aquatic animals, plants, and decaying organic matter consume oxygen. Aquatic plants are primary producers of oxygen. Plants produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis. The rate of photosynthesis is dependent upon light. Because of the effect of sunlight on photosynthesis, the amount of oxygen in pond water fluctuates daily. Oxygen levels are usually highest at midday and lowest just before sunrise. Fish kills usually occur when more oxygen is consumed during the night hours than is produced during daylight hours. Warm water does not contain as much oxygen as cold water. Thus, during warm weather months, mismanagement of ponds by overstocking, overfeeding, overfertilization, pollution from barns and feedlots, or chemical treatment of aquatic weeds can result in oxygen depletion and fish kills.
We Have the Technology to Prevent Water Pollution
- Length: 1026 words (2.9 double-spaced pages)
- Rating: Excellent
Water covers almost 75% of the earth’s surface and is undoubtedly our most precious natural resource that exists on our planet today. There won’t be any living organism on our planet without water. Water Pollution occurs when a body of water is severely affected due to addition of large amount of materials to the water.[Missouri Botanical Garden]
Pollutions such as sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. At high levels, nutrients can over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae. Excessive growth of these types of organisms consequently clogs our waterways, use up dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and block light to deeper waters.[David Krantz] This could be very harmful to aquatic organisms as it affects the respiration ability of fish and other creatures of the sea. Pollution is also caused when silt and other suspended solids, such as soil, washoff plowed fields, construction and logging sites, urban areas, and eroded river banks when it rains.[David Krantz] Pollution in the form of organic material enters waterways in many different forms as sewage, as leaves and grass clippings, or as runoff from livestock feedlots and pastures. When natural bacteria and protozoan in the water break down this organic material, they begin to use up the oxygen dissolved in the water. Many types of fish and bottom-dwelling animals cannot survive when levels of dissolved oxygen drop below two to five parts per million. When this occurs, it kills a lot of aquatic organisms which leads to unbalance in our food chain. Pathogens are another type of pollution that can be very harmful. They can cause many illnesses such as minor respiratory and skin diseases. Pathogens include such organisms as bacteria, viruses, and protozoan. These pollutants enter waterways through untreated sewage, storm drains, septic tanks, runoff from farms, and particularly boats that dump sewage. Though microscopic, these pollutants have a tremendous effect evidenced by their ability to cause sickness.[David Krantz] Air is also one of the main causes of water pollution. Because, when the air is polluted it also affects the water, thus making them correlated.
The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and agricultural. Municipal water pollution consists of waste water from homes and commercial establishments.[Ken Rubin] The main goal of treating municipal wastewater was simply to reduce its content of suspended solids, oxygen-demanding materials, dissolved inorganic compounds, and harmful bacteria. The basic methods
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of treating municipal wastewater fall into three stages: primary treatment, includes grit removal, screening, grinding, and sedimentation; secondary treatment, includes oxidation of dissolved organic matter by means of using biologically active sludge, which is then filtered off; and last treatment, is where advanced biological methods of nitrogen removal and chemical and physical methods such as granular filtration and activated carbon absorption are employed.[Ken Rubin] The handling and disposal of solid residues can account for 25 to 50 percent of the capital and operational costs of a treatment plant. The characteristics of industrial waste waters can differ considerably both within and among industries. The impact of industrial discharges depends not only on their collective characteristics, such as biochemical oxygen demand and the amount of suspended solids, but also on their content of specific inorganic and organic substances. Three options are available in controlling industrial wastewater.[Ken Rubin] Control can take place at the point of generation in the plant; wastewater can be pretreated for discharge to municipal treatment sources; or wastewater can be treated completely at the plant and either reused or discharged directly into receiving waters.[Ken Rubin] Agriculture, including commercial livestock and poultry farming, is the source of many organic and inorganic pollutants in surface waters and groundwater. These contaminants include both sediment from erosion cropland and compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen that partly originate in animal wastes and commercial fertilizers.[Ken Rubin]
The effects of water pollution are not only devastating to mankind, but also to the animals, because almost all living organisms need water to survive. Polluted water is unsuitable for drinking, agriculture, and industry. Contaminated water destroys all aquatic life and greatly reduces their ability to reproduce. Eventually, it will become a major problem to human health.[Caroline Camic] The government has passed laws in recent years in order to control water pollution. In 1970, the clear water act provided 50 billion dollars to cities and states to build wastewater facilities. This act significantly reduced water pollution for 5 years.[Caroline Camic] The UNEP, also known as “the environmental conscience of the United Nations”, attempts to allay fears of the new technological world. UNEP’s major focus is to study of ways to encourage sustainable development increasing standards of living without destroying the environment [Caroline Camic]
There are numerous reasons that I could provide to explain why I chose water pollution as my topic of research. But my main reason is because, back when I lived in India, our town had problems with getting water due to water pollution. Since the majority of the population is poor, there were high casualties. I used this project as my opportunity to explore the causes and effects of water pollution and share my views and feelings with the rest of the class.
After analyzing the effects of water pollution, we can clearly see the problems associated with it and how it is capable of disturbing the life our planet to a great extent. Even though, congress has passed laws and measures are taken to combat water pollution, we still cannot fully eradicate water pollution. It is up to us, as the people of planet earth, to keep this land clear.[Peter Kaminsky] Curing water pollution is not an impossible task, but it needs a lot of cooperation and years of patience and responsibilities. With the technologies that we posses today, the years of water mistreatment can be reversed, with a little bit of cooperation.[Peter Kaminsky]
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