Poverty Alleviation India Essay

The poverty alleviation programmes in India can be categorized based on whether it is targeted for rural areas or urban areas. Most of the programmes are designed to target rural poverty as prevalence of poverty is high in rural areas. Also targeting poverty is challenging in rural areas due to various geographic and infrastructure limitations. The programmes can be mainly grouped into 1) Wage employment programmes 2) Self-employment programmes 3) Food security programmes 4) Social security programmes 5) Urban poverty alleviation programmes.

The five year plans immediately after independence tried to focus on poverty alleviation through sectoral programmes. The first five-year plan focused on agricultural production as a way of addressing poverty while second and third plans focused on massive state led investments for employment generation in public sector. While these policies did some policy generation, they did not have enough strength to have a sweeping effect.

Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)[edit]

Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana(JGSY) is the restructured, streamlined and comprehensive version of the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY). It was started on 1 April 1999. The main aim of this programme was development of rural areas. Infrastructure like roads to connect the village to different areas, which made the village more accessible and also other social, educational (schools) and infrastructure like hospitals. Its secondary objective was to give out sustained wage employment. This was only given to BPL (below the poverty line) families and fund was to be spent for individual beneficiary schemes for SCs and STs and 3% for the establishment of barrier free infrastructure for the disabled people. The village panchayats were one of the main governing body of this programme. Rs. 1841.80 crore was used and they had a target of 8.57 lakh works. 5.07 lakh works were completed during 1999-2000.

National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)[edit]

This scheme came into effect on 15 August 1995. The scheme provides pension to old people who were above the age of 65 (now 60) who could not find for themselves and did not have any means of subsistence. The pension that was given was Rs 200 a month. This pension is given by the central government. The job of implementation of this scheme in states and union territories is given to panchayats and municipalities. The states contribution may vary depending on the state. The amount of old age pension is Rs. 200 per month for applicants aged 60–79. For applicants aged above 80 years, the amount has been revised to Rs. 500 a month according to the 2011–2012 Budget.

National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)[edit]

This scheme was started in August 1995 by the Government of India. This scheme is sponsored by the state government. It was transferred to the state sector scheme after 2002-03. It is under the community and rural department. This scheme provides a sum of Rs 20000 to a person of a family who becomes the head of the family after the death of its primary breadwinner. The breadwinner is defined as a person who is above 18 who earns the most for the family and on whose earnings the family survives.

National Maternity Benefit Scheme[edit]

This scheme provides a sum of 6000 Rs to a pregnant mother in three installments. The women have to be older than 19 years of age. It is given normally 12–8 weeks before the birth and in case of the death of the child the women can still avail it. The NMBS is implemented by states and union territories with the help of panchayats and municipalities. During 1999–2000 the total allocation of funds for this scheme was 767.05 crores and the amount used was Rs 4444.13 crore. It is for families below the poverty line. The scheme was updated in 2005-06 into Janani Suraksha Yojana with Rs 1400 for every institutional birth.

First instalment (in first trimester of pregnancy) - 3,000/-[1]

• Early Registration of Pregnancy, preferably within first three months. • Received one antenatal check-up.

Second instalment[2]

• At the time of institutional delivery - 1500/-

Third instalment (3 months after delivery) - 1500/-

• Child birth is registered.[3] • Child has received BCG vaccination. • Child has received OPV and DPT-1 & 2.

Annapurna[edit]

This scheme was started by the government in 1999–2000 to provide food to senior citizens who cannot take care of themselves and are not under the National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS), and who have no one to take care of them in their village. This scheme would provide 10 kg of free food grains a month for the eligible senior citizens. The allocation for this scheme in 2000-2001 was Rs 100 crore.They mostly target groups of 'poorest of the poor' and 'indigent senior citizens'.

Integrated Rural Development Program(IRDP)[edit]

Main article: Integrated Rural Development Program

IRDP in India is among the world's most ambitious programs to alleviate rural poverty by providing income-generated assets to the poorest of the poor. This program was first introduced in 1978-79 in some selected areas, but covered all the areas by November 1980. During the sixth five-year plan (1980–85) assets worth 47.6 billion rupees were distributed to about 16.6 million poor families. During 1987-88, another 4.2 million families were assisted with an average investment of 4,471 per family or 19 billion rupees overall.

The main objective of IRDP is to raise families of identified target group below poverty line by creation of sustainable opportunities for self-employment in the rural sector. Assistance is given in the form of subsidy by the government and term credit advanced by financial institutions (commercial banks, cooperatives and regional rural banks.) The program is implemented in all blocks of the country as centrally sponsored scheme funded on 50:50 basis by the center and the states. The target group under IRDP consists of small and marginal farmers, agricultural laborers and rural artisans having annual income below Rs. 11,000 defined as poverty line in the Eighth Plan. In order to ensure that benefits under the program reach the more vulnerable sectors of the society, it is stipulated that at least 50 per cent of assisted families should be from scheduled castes and scheduled tribes with corresponding flow of resources to them. Furthermore, 40 per cent of the coverage should be of women beneficiaries and 3 per cent of physically challenged persons. At the grassroots level, the block staff is responsible for implementation of the program. The State Level Coordination Committee (SLCC) monitors the program at state level whereas the Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment is responsible for the release of central share of funds, policy formation, overall guidance, monitoring and evaluation of the program.

Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana[edit]

Main article: Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana

This scheme aimed at creating housing for everyone.It was initiated in 1985. It aimed at creating 20 lakh housing units out of which 13 lakhs were in rural area. This scheme also would give out loans to people at subsidized rates to make houses. It was started in 1999–2000. In 1999–2000, Rs 1438.39 crore was used for this scheme and about 7.98 lakh units were built. In 2000-01 a central outlay of Rs 1710.00 crores was provided for this scheme.it improving the standard of living of rural areas:health,primary education,drinking water,housing,roads.

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)[edit]

Main article: National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005

The NREGA bill notified in 2005 and came into force in 2006 and further modified it as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) in Oct 2,2009. This scheme guarantees 100 days now 150 days of paid work to people in the rural areas. The scheme has proved to be a major boost in Indian rural population's income.

To augment wage employment opportunities by providing employment on demand and by specific guaranteed wage employment every year to households whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work to thereby extend a security net to the people and simultaneously create durable assets to alleviate some aspects of poverty and address the issue of development in the rural areas.[4]

The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD) is the nodal Ministry for the implementation of NREGA. It is responsible for ensuring timely and adequate resource support to the States and to the Central Council. It has to undertake regular review, monitoring and evaluation of processes and outcomes. It is responsible for maintaining and operating the MIS to capture and track data on critical aspects of implementation, and assess the utilization of resources through a set of performance indicators. MRD will support innovations that help in improving processes towards the achievement of the objectives of the Act. It will support the use of Information Technology (IT) to increase the efficiency and transparency of the processes as well as improve interface with the public. It will also ensure that the implementation of NREGA at all levels is sought to be made transparent and accountable to the public.Now 100 to 150 days work for all is provided.[citation needed]

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The Alleviation of Poverty Essay

1600 Words7 Pages

Introduction
The alleviation of poverty and the increment of growth within a nation, such as ours, are achieved through the dual use of fiscal and monetary policy. The essay will give a brief description of both policies as well as the manner in which they theoretically operate when attempting to achieve their goals. A look at the current policies currently being used in the country and their success will be assessed in comparison with the policy aims. Lastly, a look at whether the current fiscal and monetary policies being used are actually achieving their goals and the reasons for their success of failure.
Definitions
According to the (Griffiths & Wall, 2005) the definition of the monetary policy is the governmental manipulation of the…show more content…

Introduction
The alleviation of poverty and the increment of growth within a nation, such as ours, are achieved through the dual use of fiscal and monetary policy. The essay will give a brief description of both policies as well as the manner in which they theoretically operate when attempting to achieve their goals. A look at the current policies currently being used in the country and their success will be assessed in comparison with the policy aims. Lastly, a look at whether the current fiscal and monetary policies being used are actually achieving their goals and the reasons for their success of failure.
Definitions
According to the (Griffiths & Wall, 2005) the definition of the monetary policy is the governmental manipulation of the demand and supply of money with the intention of achieving specified government objectives. The government will go about this manipulation by altering the two main variables that affect the demand and supply of money, namely being the quantity of money in the market and the rate of interest. In the South African context the monetary policy objectives are sought by altering the rate of interest. In the (Roux, 2008) the monetary policy is further defined as a mechanism to “smooth fluctuations in the prices, the balance of payments and employment” through either expansionary or restrictive policies being followed monetary policy committee. It should be noted that there are many opposing views to the effectiveness of the monetary policy in the

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